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By John Addington Symonds

Buy of this publication contains unfastened trial entry to the place you could learn greater than 1000000 books at no cost. this can be an OCR variation with typos. Excerpt from ebook: bankruptcy III. THE AGE OF THE DESPOTS. Salient characteristics of the Fourteenth and 15th Centuries in Italy— Relation of Italy to the Empire and to the Church—The Illegitimate name of Italian Potentates—The unfastened Emergence of Personality—Frederick II. and the impression of his Example— Ezzelino da Romano—Six forms of Italian Despots—Feudal Seigneurs—Vicars of the Empire—Captains of the People— Condottieri—Nephews and Sons of Popes—Eminent Burghers— Italian incapability for Self-Government in Commonwealths— Forcible Tenure of strength inspired own Ability—The of the Despot's Life—Instances of family Crime within the Ruling Houses—Macaulay's Description of the Italian Tyrant —Savonarola's and Matteo Villani's Description of a Tyrant—The Absorption of Smaller through larger Tyrannies within the Fourteenth Century—History of the Visconti—Francesco'' Sforza—The half performed in Italian Politics by means of army Leaders—Mercenary Warfare—Alberico da Barbiano, Braccio da Montone, Sforza Atten- dolo—History of the Sforza Dynasty—The homicide of Galeazzo Maria Sforza—The Ethics of Tyrannicide in Italy—Relation of the Despots to Arts and Letters—Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta —Duke Federigo of Urbino—The college of Vittorino and the court docket of Urbino—The Cortegiano of Castiglione—The beliefs of the Italian Courtier and the trendy Gentleman—General Retrospect. The fourteenth and 15th centuries can be referred to as the Age of the Despots in Italian historical past, because the 12th and 13th are the Age of the loose Burghs, and because the 16th and 17th are the Age of international Enslavement. It was once throughout the age of the Despots that the stipulations of the Renaissance have been developed, and that the Renaissance itself assumed adefinite personality in Italy. below tyrannies, in the middle of intrigues, wars, and r...

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195. I am indebted for the above version to McCrie's Reformation in Italy, p. ] The new religious spirit which I have attempted to characterize as tinctured by Protestant opinions but disinclined for severance from Rome, manifested itself about the same time in several groups. One of them was at Rome, where a society named the Oratory of Divine Love, including from fifty to sixty members, began to meet as early as the reign of Leo X. in the Trastevere. This pious association included men of very various kinds.

THE PAPACY AND THE TRIDENTINE COUNCIL. 32 Renaissance in Italy, Volumes 1 and 2 the year 1517, tells how the whole population of Milan was divided between Guelfs and Ghibellines, wearing different costumes; and it is not uncommon to read of petty nobles in the country at this period, who were styled Captains of one or the other party. [Footnote 15: See Bruno's Cena delle Ceneri, ed. Wagner, vol. i. p. ] The wars between France and Spain revived the almost obsolete dispute, which the despots of the fifteenth century and the diplomatic confederation of the five great powers had tended in large measure to erase.

This scene recalls a similar occasion, when Alexander VI. bewailed himself aloud before his Cardinals after the murder of the Duke of Gandia by Cesare. But Alexander's repentance was momentary; his grief was that of a father for Absalom; his indignation gave way to paternal weakness for the fratricide. Paul, though his love for his relatives seems to have been fervent, never relaxed his first severity against them. They were buried in oblivion; no one uttered their names in the Pope's presence.

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