By Amina A Memon, Aldert Vrij, Ray Bull
How can psychology tell legislation and policing to assist ascertain the accuracy of witnesses, sufferers and suspects?
This moment version of Psychology and legislation: Truthfulness, Accuracy and Credibility is a considerably revised and exhaustive overview of forensic examine to do with credibility and the accuracy of evidence.
Throughout the e-book, Memon, Vrij and Bull use their popular services to target the sensible relevance of analysis in components corresponding to: felony visual appeal stereotyping evaluate of the reliability of eyewitness proof non-verbal features and physiological correlates of deception enhancing perform in interviewing witnesses, specifically youngsters and susceptible adults using and the examine of juries in numerous countries
Aimed basically at scholars and researchers in psychology, criminology and legislation, this ebook also will entice pros in legislation and police paintings.
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Extra resources for Psychology and Law Truthfulness,Accuracy and Credibility
Field studies regarding GKT polygraph testing are rare, and only two studies have been published (Elaad, 1990; Elaad, Ginton & Jungman, 1992). 2 reveals, the accuracy rate for truths is high (96 per cent), but the accuracy rate for lies is particularly low (59 per cent). Apparently, guilty suspects often do not know the correct answers to the questions, meaning that they do not have the guilty knowledge to be detected. DIFFICULTIES AND PITFALLS FOR LIE DETECTORS There are numerous reasons why professional lie catchers (and people in general) make mistakes while attempting to detect deceit (Vrij, 2000a).
34 PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW Adequate Comparisons As mentioned above, people show different responses in different situations or when answering different questions. This means that lie detectors should only compare responses within a person which are comparable. There is evidence that this does not always happen during police interviews and that apple–orange comparisons are sometimes made (Moston & Engelberg, 1993). In those interviews, suspects’ behaviour during small talk at the beginning of the interview is compared with their behaviour during the actual interrogation.
Should the signs of fear be interpreted as a sign of guilt or as a sign of innocence? The behaviour, speech content or physiological response does not provide the answer. Unfortunately, lie detectors seem not to be fully aware of 30 PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW this and are often inclined to interpret signs of nervousness as deceptive even when they are displayed by truth tellers. Ekman (1992) labelled this phenomenon the ‘Othello error’, after Shakespeare’s play. Othello falsely accuses his wife Desdemona of infidelity.