By LA Fedorov, A. V. Yablokov
Adventure of all former Soviet republics with using insecticides is coming near near so one can effectively comprehend the factors and results of pesticide dissemination all around the globe. by no means in any kingdom has quite a bit clinical and organic examine at the effects of pesticide use been noticeable as within the USSR within the 1970's via 1980's. those facts regularly remained mystery until eventually the 1990's. a part of this fabric is being offered right here to the Western reader for the 1st time. one of the difficulties mentioned, there are: legislation, keep watch over, and monetary use of insecticides in USSR agriculture; air, water and soil infection; transformation of insecticides within the surroundings and in nutrition items; human and animal poisoning via varieties of pesticide; morbidity and mortality linked to insecticides, genetic results, and results on copy, endocrine and different structures; bioaccumulation; insecticides as poisons for cultivated crops; pesticide resistance in goal species; connection of chemical weaponry vegetation with pesticide creation.
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Extra info for Pesticides: The Chemical Weapon That Kills Life : (The USSR's Tragic Experience)
93 mg/kg), which breaks down in the soil, forming the also highly toxic sulfoxide and sulfone. The herbicide propanile transforms in the soil into a dioxin-like substance . Along with those cases we understand, where pesticides transformed without it being desired, there are other cases where humans introduced components of the necessary chemical processes directly into the natural environment. The soil sterilizer metham (sodium methyldithiocarbamate) may act simultaneously as a fungicide, a nematodicide, and an herbicide [4, 5, 30, 41].
2,4-D also breaks down more slowly when other pesticides are present in the soil . By the end of the 1980s, Moldavia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Uzbekistan, and some regions of Tajikistan were among those regions with the largest area of soil contaminated by pesticides. In these regions, 40-80% of the soil studied was contaminated, with the average contamination level was from 2 – 6 times MPC. Large territories of Russia (the Primorsky Krai, the Central Chernozem Oblast, the Central Volga region, and the Northern Caucasus), as well as Kirgizia, Turkmenistan, Georgia, and Ukraine were among regions with a medium amount of soil area contaminated by pesticides.
Poisoning started after measures were taken to fight malaria. At least 2800 of the 7500 workers in this area were poisoned . When studied, the more highly toxic iso-malathion was found together with malathion in their bodies. It is known that iso-malathion transforms into the more highly toxic malaoxon, both in storage and directly in the environment. ) are far more stable and have a significant antibacterial expression. 93 mg/kg), which breaks down in the soil, forming the also highly toxic sulfoxide and sulfone.