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By W. P. Blount (Eds.)

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Iii) Cotels. This term derived from 'cow hotels' really only denotes 'large dairy units'.

In 1964,25 cows— varying from 19 in the western region to 40 in the south-eastern region. In 1942 the average size of herd was only 15 in England and Wales. 1 It was 26 in 1964. B, recorded an average herd size of 31 in 1942 and 44 in 1964. (ii) The change in the number of cows milked per man or 'labour hour' is underlined more by the change of milking method than by other factors. Thus in 1964 in England and Wales the number of cows milked per man varied from 38 in abreast parlours to 50 in chute parlours— the relative numbers per labour hour were 19 and 24.

Where hay and silage has to be made the aim will be toward higher quality at some sacrifice of tonnage, but not of performance. Barn hay drying would appear to be economical considering the enhanced value of the hay. Most dairy farmers agree that planning the seasonality of production (the incidence of calving) is an essential operation at the start, and they also agree that a high proportion of autumn calvers is desirable however good the grassland or the expertise in grass utilisation. B, is still the M O N T H L Y BASIC P R I C E S * P A I D TO W H O L E S A L E P R O D U C E R S I N E N G L A N D A N D W A L E S — 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 Month Northern North Western Eastern East Midland West Midland North Wales South Wales Southern MidWestern Far Western South Eastern April 1965 May June July August September October November December 36-23 27-55 27-67 31-84 3602 3911 4001 39-72 40-94 36-58 27-90 2802 32-19 36-37 39-46 40-36 4007 41-54 36-76 27-83 28-20 32-12 36-55 39-39 40-29 40 00 41-47 36-61 2818 28 05 32-22 36-40 39-49 40-64 4010 41-57 36-25 27-82 27-94 31-86 3604 39-38 4003 39-74 41-46 35-96 27-53 27-65 31-82 3600 3909 39-74 39-45 41-17 36-17 27-49 27-61 31-78 35-96 3905 39-70 39-41 40-88 36-83 28-15 28-27 32-44 36-37 39-71 40-61 4007 41-79 36-42 27-74 27-86 31-78 35-96 39-30 39-95 39-41 41-38 35-94 27-51 27-38 31-55 35-73 38-82 39-72 3918 40-90 37-13 28-70 28-57 32-74 36-92 4001 40-91 40-37 4209 January 1966 February March 41-24 40-85 40-90 41-59 41-20 41-25 41-77 41-38 41-43 41-87 41-48 41-28 41-51 41-12 41-17 41-22 40-83 40-88 41-43 41 04 41 09 41-84 41-45 41-50 41-43 41 04 41 09 41-20 40-81 40-86 42-39 4200 4205 I N T E N S I V E S Y S T E M S OF M I L K P R O D U C T I O N The basic prices relate to milk with an annual average total solids content of 12-00 per cent but less than 12-10 per cent but with an average solids-not-fat content of more than 8-40 per cent (Pence per gallon) * Prices after deducting ex-farm transport charges, cost of sales promotion and publicity and Board's administrative expenses.

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