By Christophe Felder, Pierre Paillon
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Following the invention of the United States by way of Columbus in 1492, ecu colonists introduced their procedure of fortification to the recent global in an try and be certain their security and consolidate their conquests. French and British explorers got here later to North the USA, and hence the institution in their colossal settlements in basic terms obtained lower than means through the seventeenth century.
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348, 400, 465, 511 ; Gloria, op. 47-48, Cap. 12. According to these last statutes the college members of arts even had to honour close relatives of their colleagues in the same way. 63. Although one might suppose it needed to take place more often, in order to be truly effective. 64. Unless absent doctors could prove during the next meeting that they had been absent for the usual just causes, there was a small fine to be paid, which was usually offered to the church for further masses. 25r-v).
4, f. 51r ; Malagola, op. 341-342, 458, 503. 28. Generally the oath was to be given only once at the time of admission, but in the college of arts and medicine in Padua its repetition was compulsory with each new presidental election. The reason for the continuous renewal of the oath is unclear ; it might indicate much less group cohesion. Gallo, op. 77 ; AAUP, 302, f. VIIIr. For the oath at the moment of admission, see footnotes 14 and 17. 29. In licitis et honestis. Also the college president was of course obliged to swear obedience to the statutes and to exercise his function according to the prescriptions (AAUP, 126, f.
The collegia considered here can, in effect, be compared to guilds ; they were professional corporations of doctors in law or medicine. Professional colleges, which admitted all or a selection of local doctors in the discipline concerned and controlled all practitioners in town, were present in most Italian towns, also when there was no university. They were not necessarily linked to a university nor were their members necessarily involved in university teaching. In most university towns, however, the professional colleges acted as examination commissions for the local university, and they consequently included some teachers among their members.