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Clearly, in two of these models, the ideas go beyond simple adiabatic dynamics. 2. Energy transfer in a binary collision: Energy transferred in a binary collision between a 1 MeV projectile (electron, neutron, proton, Cu atom) and a target atom (H or Cu). In these binary collisions, the particles behave like hard spheres; we have chosen an element (Cu), rather than a compound, for simplicity. e. e. e. e. e. g. Y H Lee 1992). An ideal plasma would remove the oxide very precisely, and would ignore the silicon.

4 shows some basic features of band structures. In particular, it identifies two key energies. The first is the bandgap ␦E. It is the gap which is a measure of how much energy is available from electron–hole recombination. The second key energy is the bandwidth. The bandwidth is a measure of the kinetic energy cost in localising a carrier on a single site. In non-crystalline systems, the band edge will be hard to define uniquely, and the lowest-energy excitations may vary substantially from site to site.

Since we shall be discussing both crystalline and amorphous materials, we shall begin by identifying some general features common to all structures. 1 Band structures: General features for crystalline and amorphous solids Bandgaps The existence of bands and bandgaps is not related to crystallinity. The fact that one can see through glass and water should be reason enough to believe bandgaps do not need periodic structures. Certainly, most materials will become metallic when sufficiently compressed, but this requires conditions which, for many materials, are far from normal.

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