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By Geoffrey H. Bourne

International overview of Cytology offers present advances and finished reports in cellphone biology-both plant and animal. Articles tackle constitution and keep watch over of gene expression, nucleocytoplasmic interactions, regulate of mobile improvement and differentiation, and cellphone transformation and progress. Authored by way of a few of the premiere scientists within the box, every one quantity offers up to date details and instructions for destiny study.

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198 1 ) . They are rarely seen in freeze­ etchings of rapidly frozen cells, but can be induced by prefixation before the freezing process. It is possible that chemical fixatives condense the bacterial chromosome and, because the chromosome is attached to the plasma membrane at several sites, this pulls the membrane into the cytoplasm at the attachment sites. STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA AND BIOLOGY OF VIRUSES 39 Fm. 22. Freeze etching of a dividing Bacillus anthracis cell showing a septum (S) and a meso­ some (M) which is derived and attached to the plasma membrane.

This chemical discrimination by the plasma mem­ brane also results in a proton and K + (versus Na + ) potential across the bilayer which is essential for an energized membrane and, in fact, the bacterium's vitality. The plasma membrane is the major organelle of the bacterial cell since it not only confines the cytoplasm, but is also responsible for many of the essential cellular functions such as respiration, wall synthesis, ATPase activity, and nu­ trient transport. load performed by the internal organelles of eukaryotic cells has been partitioned into this prokaryotic membrane.

STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA AND BIOLOGY OF VIRUSES 45 Glycogen granules are an example of a cytoplasmic inclusion which is not enclosed by a membrane (an exception is certain Clostridia spp . ; Laishley et al. , 1 973). They, like polyhydroxybutyrate bodies, are storage depots for carbon and consist of highly branched, large-molecular-weight polymers of glucoside which form amorphous bodies 20- 100 nm in diameter scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Glycogen granules do not have an apparent substructure and appear as an amorphous substance which is readily stained by heavy metal salts in thin sections.

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