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By David Murphy

Initially employed through filthy rich Italian urban states to guard their resources in the course of a time of ceaseless warring, the Condottiere of the Italian peninsula turned recognized for his wealth, venality and amorality in the course of the 14th century. The Condottieri's pursuit of revenue intended they have been ready to alter facets for the ideal expense, even in the course of conflict, and so they prospered, turning into either robust and wealthy within the method. Leaders equivalent to John Hawkwood, together with his recognized 'White Company', turned significant political figures. as soon as on the height in their strength, they generally labored jointly to guard their cozy place through staging a couple of visually notable yet virtually cold battles, thereby averting the true factor. It used to be due to this, and their reliance on medieval strategies and weaponry, together with grand armoured knights, that they have been ultimately burnt up or dispersed by means of the extra glossy armies. Lavishly illustrated with modern depictions and unique paintings, this name examines the advanced army association, recruitment, education and weaponry of the Condottiere. With perception into their origins and motivations, the writer, Dr David Murphy, brings jointly the social, political and armed forces historical past of those robust and unscrupulous males who controlled to persuade Italian society and war for over centuries.

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The onset of a more diversified design culture is intimately linked with changes in the manufacturing base and Italy’s late industrialisation, as well as with altered societal structures and cultural practices, reformed educational systems and new patterns of consumption. Therefore, our ‘made in Italy’ is a history of the last century or so. 33 Despite Reyner Banham’s early and surprising inclusion of futurism in his Theory and Design in the First Machine Age,34 this rampant Italian avant-garde movement is rarely given much design historical attention.

Museo Nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci. However, seeing what the Second World War did to the production system and the life of ordinary people, Gio Ponti became interested in the social responsibility of industrial design. 42 Ponti’s social awakening was symptomatic of a shift from interwar bourgeois formalism to the ‘proletarian’ idealism of the early post-war period, which significantly altered the rhetoric of design reform. THE REPUBLIC AND PUBLIC ENTERPRISE The period after the Second World War witnessed the consolidation of the Italian Republic as we know it today, as well as the founding of the main political balance of power and the new state structure.

2 Transculturation in transit: mod-ified Lambrettas and Vespas on the streets of Brighton, United Kingdom. Screenshot from the film Brighton Rock (2010), where mods and rockers fight it out in 1964. Image courtesy of STUDIOCANAL Films Ltd. Finally, we can seek to determine nationality in design by looking at nations or regions themselves as sites for design, for manufacture and for the mediation and consumption of design. Nations and regions have specific natural resources as well as centres of design and manufacturing specialisation—take, for example, the porcelain centre of Jingdezhen in the Jiangxhi province of China, or the furniture manufacture at Grand Rapids in the US state of Michigan.

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