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By H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, H. Cerjak

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Distances between electrode and an undeformed pool surface. The ionisation and the electrical conductivity of the plasma are influenced to a high degree by vaporisation of the metal on the weld pool surface. in R2 _ R2. max 1 (S) mm The ratio between intensity at minimum and at maximum resistance should be considered to be smaller than the distribution relation in Equation 1. First-of all, a simple relation was used for the dependence of R on pool surface temperature Tsun. (l _ t} Tsur{- TliqJ : ~uif< : otherwise Tvap - Tliq (4) (where Tliq is the liquidus temperature, Tvap the vaporisation temperature and the weighting parameter for reduction of resistance by the influence of ionisation) .

Maximum values for pressure Parc,max and density of heat flow qarc,max are determined in such a way that the corresponding surface integrals on the area of arc activity r2 (cf. Fig. 4) are equal to the total force and the energy input, respectively. The heat flow density and the arc pressure are as follows: t} • qarc(x,y,z, T) · . --7 --7 = qarc,max (x,y,z,T)·(earc·nsuif )(x,y,z) (5) 26 Mathematical Modelling of Weld Phenomena 2 Figure 4. Co-ordinate system and boundary conditions. pare (X,y,z, T) = PaTl:,max (x,y,z, T)·(e:c·~if )(x,y,z) (6) where ~rc is the unit vector (electrode top ~ pool surface) and ~uifthe unit vector normal to the pool surface.

Max 1 (S) mm The ratio between intensity at minimum and at maximum resistance should be considered to be smaller than the distribution relation in Equation 1. First-of all, a simple relation was used for the dependence of R on pool surface temperature Tsun. (l _ t} Tsur{- TliqJ : ~uif< : otherwise Tvap - Tliq (4) (where Tliq is the liquidus temperature, Tvap the vaporisation temperature and the weighting parameter for reduction of resistance by the influence of ionisation) . Maximum values for pressure Parc,max and density of heat flow qarc,max are determined in such a way that the corresponding surface integrals on the area of arc activity r2 (cf.

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