By Andrew A. Meharg
Rice is the staple nutrients for half the world’s inhabitants. intake of rice is the main publicity course globally to the category one, non-threshold carcinogen inorganic arsenic. This ebook explains the assets of arsenic to paddy soils and the biogeochemical methods and plant physiological attributes of paddy soil-rice ecosystems that result in excessive concentrations of arsenic in rice grain. It provides the worldwide development of arsenic focus and speciation in rice, discusses human exposures to inorganic arsenic from rice and the ensuing well-being hazards. It additionally highlights specific populations that experience the top rice consumptions, which come with Southern and South East Asians, weaning infants, gluten intolerance victims and people eating rice milk. The ebook additionally offers the data of arsenic focus and speciation in different significant plants and descriptions methods for decreasing arsenic in rice grain and within the human nutrition via agronomic management.
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Extra resources for Arsenic & Rice
2006). They found that intake of total arsenic was 8, 60 and 330 mg/d from water and 130, 170 and 200 mg/g from food, respectively for the three drinking water classes. Another study for West Bengal estimated 170 mg/d inorganic arsenic intake from rice (Signes-Pastor et al. 2008). Again, that where drinking water is relatively low, rice greatly dominates arsenic intake, and even when drinking water is high, rice is still a major contributor to dietary intake. To place the Bengali data in context, Ruangwises and Saipan (2010) conducted a similar study for Thai arsenic consumption and found inorganic arsenic intake from food of 80 mg/d, with rice consumption rates just over 200 g/d (Fig.
2 Studies on the Total Intake of Inorganic Arsenic 35 Another finding was that those on lower incomes had higher rates of rice consumption. When performing risk assessments related to inorganic arsenic intake from rice (see Sect. 5), it is clear that such assessments need to have clear demographical breakdown of the studied populations. As mentioned in Sect. 5, other sub-populations, based on health and/or lifestyles, may consume high amounts of rice and rice products. These “health” subpopulations are probably dominated by gluten intolerances and Celiac disease sufferers, who tend to substitute wheat and other gluten containing substances with rice as the most palatable alternative source of carbohydrate (Thompson 2001).
A further 8% was contributed by rice cooking water (see Sect. 4 for a discussion of rice cooking). The arsenic level in drinking and cooking water was 17 mg/L, which is low for arsenic affected regions of the Bengal Delta (Smedley and Kinniburgh 2002), even though the authors were working in a designated arsenic affected region. The lower than expected values of arsenic in water probably were due to remedial technologies to reduce arsenic in the drinking water supply. Similarly, Ohno et al. (2007) studied an arsenic affected region of Bangladesh and found water arsenic levels lower than expected with a median of 20 mg/L.