By Harrison, Peter; Wilson, Michael
This e-book is a pragmatic advisor to the detection and therapy of faults in claddings and fixings on structures. It units out the issues curious about universal cladding platforms for structures, and relates those difficulties to all of the fabrics used: stone, masonry, concrete and glass-reinforced composites
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Additional info for Appraisal and Repair of Claddings and Fixings
4. Natural stone greater than 50 mm thick Failure of heavy natural stones may usually be attributed to the omission of cramps, the non-location of dowels or a lack of movement joints. The latter is a prime cause; the remedy is to 31 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR remove the stones and refix. Occasionally the stone may fail because it has been wrongly bedded, but this is rare. 5. Brickwork/timber frame Although not specifically covered in this book, some general points can be made about this combination. The important thing to watch is the relative shrinkage movement between timber and brickwork; this movement can be very substantial, and ties must be capable of resisting the loads specified as well as the degree of movement expected.
Natural stone less than 50 mm thick Slate, marble, travertine and granite are the materials that most commonly fail. These failures are generally attributable to movement or imposed accidental loads. It is not a simple matter to repair stones in situ and often the failure will be localized. To take off a whole wall of stones for an isolated problem is costly. It may be possible to work back from an end stone, but generally the only sensible solution will be to face-fix the stones. It is possible that movement perhaps caused by thermal forces is due to a shortage of fixings or a lack of movement joints.
15) and restraint (Fig. 16). Load-bearing fixings, as the name implies, support all applied Fig. 15. Load-bearing fixing 51 APPRAISAL AND REPAIR Adjustment may be provided in three dimensions Fig. 16. Restraint fixings structural loads, including any superimposed loads, services and secondary fixings such as doors or windows. Restraint fixings take all temporary applied loads such as wind action (in all directions) and any out-of-balance restraining forces due to eccentricity of the cladding member (large overhanging cornice stones or similar).