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By N. Bowditch

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Since the area of minimum distortion is near a meridian, this projection is useful for charts covering a large band of latitude and extending a relatively short distance on each side of the tangent meridian. It is sometimes used for star charts showing the evening sky at various seasons of the year. See Figure 307. 26 NAUTICAL CHARTS Figure 309a. An oblique Mercator projection. Figure 307. A transverse Mercator map of the Western Hemisphere. 308. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid is a military grid superimposed upon a transverse Mercator graticule, or the representation of these grid lines upon any graticule.

POLAR CHARTS 320. Polar Projections Special consideration is given to the selection of projections for polar charts because the familiar projections become special cases with unique features. In the case of cylindrical projections in which the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the polar axis of the earth, distortion becomes excessive and the scale changes rapidly. Such projections cannot be carried to the poles. However, both the transverse and oblique Mercator projections are used. Conic projections with their axes parallel to the earth’s polar axis are limited in their usefulness for polar charts because parallels of latitude extending through a full 360° of longitude appear as arcs of circles rather than full circles.

POLAR CHARTS 320. Polar Projections Special consideration is given to the selection of projections for polar charts because the familiar projections become special cases with unique features. In the case of cylindrical projections in which the axis of the cylinder is parallel to the polar axis of the earth, distortion becomes excessive and the scale changes rapidly. Such projections cannot be carried to the poles. However, both the transverse and oblique Mercator projections are used. Conic projections with their axes parallel to the earth’s polar axis are limited in their usefulness for polar charts because parallels of latitude extending through a full 360° of longitude appear as arcs of circles rather than full circles.

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