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By K.P. Prabhakaran Nair

Referred to as the "King" of spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and the "Queen" of spices, cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum M.), either perennial vegetation of the tropics, are an important and most generally wanted spice vegetation of the area. They either have many makes use of, for instance, either are used as flavourings and as a medication. This booklet presents a finished evaluation of those vitally important spice plants, covering Read more...


referred to as the 'King' of spices, black pepper (Piper nigrum L) and the 'Queen' of spices, cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum M), either perennial vegetation of the tropics, are crucial and so much widely Read more...

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Example text

Hence, zinc movement to the plant root surface is principally by diffusion and is essentially confined to a zone around the plant root that hardly extends beyond the root hair cylinder (Marschner, 1994). In a review on the mechanism of zinc uptake, Marschner (1994) indicated that flow culture experiments with various species showed adequate ranges of zinc concentration in the range of 6  108–8  106 M, which are concentrations greater than those that would be expected in the solution of most soils.

4% (Geetha and Nair, 1990). Organic manuring is a very commonly adopted practice in pepper production in India and parts of Asia. This can either be through the use of fresh vegetative matter or through the use of “burnt earth” (Bergman, 1940; Harden and White, 1934). In the former category, freshly chopped materials (such as leaves, stems, and the like) from a number of trees are used. The trees generally used are E. indica, Garuga pinnata, and Grevillea robusta (Sivakumar and Wahid, 1994). , 1981).

The application of burnt ash has many beneficial effects in improving the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil. Compared to the acidic soil, having a pH of 4–5, the burnt earth has a pH of 7–8 and acts as a good soil ameliorant in correcting pH. There is extensive literature on this method (Bergman, 1940; De Waard, 1969; Harden and White, 1934; Huitema, 1941). Owing to environmental hazards, especially because of large-scale burning and the emission of smoke, the Government of Sarawak banned the practice in 1940.

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