By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)
Abstraction is a primary mechanism underlying either human and synthetic belief, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a vital function in lots of disciplines, particularly laptop Programming, typical and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated structures, synthetic Intelligence and computer studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This publication first offers the reader with an outline of the notions of abstraction proposed in quite a few disciplines by way of evaluating either commonalities and transformations. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to seize them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply acceptable through the creation of a suite of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout assorted domain names and functions. it's the impression of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, advanced platforms and desktop studying which creates the middle of the e-book. A basic framework, in keeping with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic strength is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based prognosis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
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Additional resources for Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems
A field where the development of computational models of abstraction could be very beneficial is spatial cognition. fr/#CB and http://www2. ca/~rensink/flicker/download/. 36 2 Abstraction in Different Disciplines particular locations, or responses that depend on the spatial arrangement of stimuli” . In spatial reasoning one should be able to abstract time- and space-independent relations from contingent locations, to change among different reference systems, to reason with landmarks and maps, and orient him/herself in unknown environments.
When a subject scans with the eyes the environment, he/she obtains a set of local views, because these views depend upon the position and orientation of the subject’s eyes, head and body; for this reason local views correspond to a concrete level of spatial description. For spatial representations to be flexible, the time/space dependency should be dropped, and place, angular, and distance relations must be processed in an abstract way. The place occupied by the subject can be defined as the federating core of panoramic local views, because it is the point of view of all local views that can be obtained by a 360◦ rotation around the subject.
46], with the “epistemological” Levels of Explanation. One of the best known layered analysis of an information processing system is provided by Marr , who proposed the three-level hypothesis, namely, a system can be analyzed at the following levels: • Computational level—This level consists of a description of “the abstract computational theory of the device, in which the performance of the device is characterized as a mapping from one kind of information structures to another. The abstract properties of this mapping are defined precisely, and its appropriateness and adequacy for the task at hand are demonstrated”.